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The research process


The research process in 1-2-3

The research process in 1-2-3

Collection of personal information

If you are going to collect data on people you need to check to see if you have to report your research to the Data Protection Official for Research (NSD).

Choice of methods

Ethical problems related to the choice of research methods and approaches

Ethical guidelines related to your research topic

The Norwegian National Research Ethics Committees offers guidelines related to research on:

There are many different approaches in the academic writing world to creating reference lists and citing sources. The four most popular styles at NTNU are the APA, ChicagoHarvard and Vancouver referencing systems. The links here are from VIKO - an aid for academic writing that offers research tips and advice primarily for students, but that may also be of help to researchers. Here you will find information about the different reference styles and how to refer to sources.

There are many tools for reference management. NTNU University Library offers help and training in the EndNote reference tool, as well as in BibTex.

Academic journals generally have their own mandatory referencing system. Each journal's web page usually contains author guidelines that spell out which referencing system is required, but if you are in doubt, check with the library or your supervisor. 

In-text citations and reference lists

Best practice - quotations, paraphrasing and references

  • Reference lists written using the APA, Harvard and Chicago styles are written in alphabetical order by last name, and in decending order based on the year of publication.
  • If you use the Vancouver style, you should write your reference list in chronological order based on the order in which the references are cited in the text.

Intellectual rights (IPR)

NTNU's Ethics Portal

Help with publicizing your research results

Register your research activities (Cristin)

Publishing your research in full text online

The National Committees on Research Ethics, NENT:

  • 4: The research's obligations to society
  • 5: Honesty, truthfulness and accountability
  • 6: Uncertainty, risks and the precautionary principle
  • 7: Protection of research participants

The National Committees on Research Ethics, NESH:

  • D: The research community

EU guidelines for researchers: Ethics for researchers (pdf) 

Forskningsprosess - Medforfatterskap

Forskningsprosessen - habilitet


What to watch out for to avoid conflicts of interest.

Forskningsprosess - DMFs helseportal

Health and medical research

NTNU's Faculty of Medicine has developed a process for how to plan, execute and complete a research project (all in Norwegian).

The research process

The Ethics Portal

Case studies and discussions related to personnel and research dilemmas, such as best ways to handle conflicts of interest, freedom of speech, loyalty and confidentiality.

Forskningsetisk utvalg

The Research Ethics Committee

Members, mandate and tasks of NTNU’s Research Ethics Committee.